To convert a MAC (Media Access Control) address to binary, you need to convert each hexadecimal character in the MAC address to its binary equivalent. A MAC address is typically represented in hexadecimal format, consisting of 12 characters (usually separated by colons or hyphens), like this: `1A:2B:3C:4D:5E:6F`

or `1A-2B-3C-4D-5E-6F`

.

Each hexadecimal character corresponds to 4 binary digits (bits), since hexadecimal is a base-16 system and binary is base-2. Here’s how you convert it:

### Step-by-Step Conversion

**Write Down the MAC Address**: For example,`1A:2B:3C:4D:5E:6F`

.**Remove Separators**: Ignore the colons or hyphens. You get`1A2B3C4D5E6F`

.**Convert Each Hexadecimal Character to Binary**:- The hexadecimal digits are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F.
- The binary equivalents are:
- 0 in hex = 0000 in binary
- 1 in hex = 0001 in binary
- 2 in hex = 0010 in binary
- 3 in hex = 0011 in binary
- 4 in hex = 0100 in binary
- 5 in hex = 0101 in binary
- 6 in hex = 0110 in binary
- 7 in hex = 0111 in binary
- 8 in hex = 1000 in binary
- 9 in hex = 1001 in binary
- A in hex = 1010 in binary
- B in hex = 1011 in binary
- C in hex = 1100 in binary
- D in hex = 1101 in binary
- E in hex = 1110 in binary
- F in hex = 1111 in binary

**Convert Each Character**: Apply the conversion to each character of the MAC address:- For
`1A2B3C4D5E6F`

, you would convert as follows:- 1 = 0001
- A = 1010
- 2 = 0010
- B = 1011
- 3 = 0011
- C = 1100
- 4 = 0100
- D = 1101
- 5 = 0101
- E = 1110
- 6 = 0110
- F = 1111

- For
**Combine the Binary Groups**: Put all the binary groups together to get the binary representation of the MAC address. For`1A2B3C4D5E6F`

, it would be`0001101010100010101111001100010011010101111001101111`

.

### Example

Converting `1A:2B:3C:4D:5E:6F`

to binary:

`1A:2B:3C:4D:5E:6F`

= 0001 1010 0010 1011 0011 1100 0100 1101 0101 1110 0110 1111

= 0001101010100010101111001100010011010101111001101111 (as a continuous string)

### Things to Note

- Ensure to always use 4 binary digits for each hexadecimal digit, padding with zeros if necessary.
- MAC addresses are globally unique identifiers assigned to network interfaces for communications.

By following these steps, you can convert any MAC address to its binary equivalent.