Overloaded Constructors in TypeScript

In TypeScript, constructor overloading allows a class to have more than one constructor function, each with a different set of parameters. However, unlike some other languages, TypeScript doesn’t allow multiple constructor implementations directly. Instead, you declare multiple constructor signatures, and then a single implementation that can handle all possible variations of arguments. This is done through the use of union types, optional parameters, or parameter defaults.

Example of Constructor Overloading in TypeScript

Here’s an example to illustrate constructor overloading in TypeScript:

class ExampleClass {
private field1: number;
private field2: string;

// Constructor overloads
constructor(field1: number);
constructor(field1: number, field2: string);

// Constructor implementation
constructor(field1: number, field2?: string) {
this.field1 = field1;
this.field2 = field2 || "default value";

// Method to display field values
display(): void {
console.log(`field1: ${this.field1}, field2: ${this.field2}`);

let example1 = new ExampleClass(10);
example1.display(); // field1: 10, field2: default value

let example2 = new ExampleClass(20, "Hello");
example2.display(); // field1: 20, field2: Hello

In this example:

  • The ExampleClass class has two constructor overloads: one that takes a single number argument, and another that takes a number and a string.
  • The actual constructor implementation takes two parameters, with the second parameter being optional (field2?: string). This implementation must be compatible with all the overloads.
  • Inside the constructor, the field2 parameter is assigned a default value if it’s not provided.


  • TypeScript ensures that the constructor implementation is compatible with all declared overloads.
  • The overloads provide a way to define different ways to create an object, offering flexibility while maintaining type safety.
  • The actual implementation of the constructor uses optional parameters or default values to handle the different overload cases.

Understanding Constructor Overloading

Constructor overloading in TypeScript is about providing multiple ways to create an instance of a class, each with a different set of parameters. This is particularly useful in scenarios where you might want to construct an object with different pieces of information.

Union Types in Constructor Parameters

Another way to achieve constructor-like overloading is by using union types as constructor parameters. This approach provides more flexibility in terms of the types of arguments you can pass to the constructor.


class ExampleClass {
private field: string | number;

constructor(field: string | number) {
this.field = field;

display(): void {
console.log(`field: ${this.field}`);

let example1 = new ExampleClass(123);
example1.display(); // field: 123

let example2 = new ExampleClass("Hello");
example2.display(); // field: Hello

In this example, the field parameter of the constructor can be either a string or a number, providing two different ways to instantiate the ExampleClass.

Default Parameters

Default parameters can also be used in TypeScript constructors to simulate overloading. This allows you to provide default values for parameters.


class ExampleClass {
constructor(private field1: number, private field2: string = "default") {}

display(): void {
console.log(`field1: ${this.field1}, field2: ${this.field2}`);

let example = new ExampleClass(10);
example.display(); // field1: 10, field2: default

Here, field2 has a default value, so you can instantiate ExampleClass with just one parameter.

Rest Parameters

Rest parameters can be used in constructors to accept a variable number of arguments.


class ExampleClass {
private fields: number[];

constructor(...fields: number[]) {
this.fields = fields;

display(): void {
console.log(`fields: ${this.fields.join(", ")}`);

let example = new ExampleClass(1, 2, 3, 4);
example.display(); // fields: 1, 2, 3, 4

This approach is different from traditional overloading but provides a way to pass a variable number of arguments to the constructor.

Important Points

  • TypeScript’s constructor overloading does not work exactly like traditional overloading found in languages like Java or C#. It’s more about providing different signatures with a single implementation.
  • The actual constructor implementation in TypeScript must be compatible with all its overloads.
  • Using union types, default parameters, or rest parameters can provide additional flexibility but might not always offer the same level of type specificity as traditional overloading.

In summary, constructor overloading in TypeScript enhances flexibility in object creation, allowing for various initialization patterns while ensuring type safety and consistency in your codebase.

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